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Radiography is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and application of imaging technology like X-ray and radiation (gamma rays), to diagnosing and treating diseases. Radiographs (or roentgen graphs, named after the discoverer of the X-ray, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen) are produced by transmitting X-rays through a patient. A capture device then converts X-rays into visible light which then forms an image for review diagnosis. The original and still a common imaging procedure, uses silver-impregnated films. Plain radiography was the only imaging modality available during the first 50 years of radiology. It is still the first study ordered in evaluation of the lungs, heart and skeleton because of its wide availability, speed and relatively low cost. However, with recent developments in the field of technology, Digital Radiography is becoming increasingly popular in most up to date Hospitals and Diagnostic Centres all over the world due to its unmatchable clarity and quality of result desired by most practicing Doctors. Digital Radiography has replaced the earlier existing Film-Screen radiography, whereby in Digital Radiography the X-rays strike a plate of sensors which then converts the signals generated into digital information and an image on computer screen.
Ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible pathology or lesions. Obstetric sonography is commonly used during pregnancy and is widely recognized by the public. In diagnostics ultrasonography, the ultrasonic waves are produced by electrically stimulating a crystal called a transducer. As the beam strikes an interface or boundary between tissues of varying density (e.g., muscle and blood), some of the sound waves are reflected back to the transducer as echoes. The echoes are then converted into electrical impulses that are displayed on an oscilloscope, presenting a “picture” of the tissues under examination. A particularly important use of ultrasonography is in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, where ionizing radiation is to be avoided whenever possible. The technique can evaluate fetal size and maturity and fetal and placental position. It is a fast, relatively safe, and reliable technique for diagnosing multiple pregnancies. Uterine tumors and other pelvic masses, including abscesses, can be identified by ultrasonography.